TAIL(1) Commands and Applications TAIL(1)
tail - display the last part of a file
tail [-f] [-b number | -c number | -n number] [file...]
tail [-f] [+|-number[l | b | c]] [file...]
The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its
standard input, to the standard output.
The display begins at a byte, line or 512-byte block location in the
input. Numbers having a leading plus (''+'') sign are relative to the
beginning of the input, for example, -c +2 starts the display at the
second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus (''-'') sign
or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example,
-n 2 displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting
location is -n 10, or the last 10 lines of the input.
The options are as follows:
-b The location is number 512-byte blocks.
-c The location is number bytes.
-f The -f option causes tail not to stop when end of file is
reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be
appended to the input. The -f option is ignored if the
standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO.
-n The location is number lines.
If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a
header consisting of the string ==> XXX <== where XXX is the name of
The tail utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
This manual page documents tail version 2.0.
This command was ported from FreeBSD source code for distribution with
cat(1), head(1), sed(1)
The tail utility is expected to be a superset of the POSIX.2 specifica-
tion. In particular, the -b option is an extension to that standard.
The historic (obsolescent) command line syntax of tail is supported by
The BSD -r option, which causes the input to be displayed in reverse
order, by line, has not been implemented for the GNO version of tail.
Version 1.1 (18-Jan-93) of tail, shipped with GNO 2.0, was written by
Sameer Parekh (zane@ddsw1.MCS.COM).
GNO August 1997 TAIL(1)
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