STDIO(3)                       Library Routines                       STDIO(3)


       stdio - standard input/output library functions


       #include <stdio.h>
       FILE *stdin;
       FILE *stdout;
       FILE *stderr;


       The  standard  I/O  library  provides  a  simple and efficient buffered
       stream I/O interface.  Input and output is  mapped  into  logical  data
       streams  and  the physical I/O characteristics are concealed. The func-
       tions and macros are listed below; more information is  available  from
       the individual man pages.

       A  stream  is associated with an external file (which may be a physical
       device) by opening a file, which may involve creating a new file.  Cre-
       ating  an existing file causes its former contents to be discarded.  If
       a file can support positioning  requests  (such  as  a  disk  file,  as
       opposed  to  a terminal) then a file position indicator associated with
       the stream is positioned at the start of the file (byte  zero),  unless
       the  file is opened with append mode. If append mode is used, the posi-
       tion indicator will be placed the end-of-file.  The position  indicator
       is maintained by subsequent reads, writes and positioning requests. All
       input occurs as if the characters were read by successive calls to  the
       fgetc(3)  function;  all  output  takes place as if all characters were
       read by successive calls to the fputc(3) function.

       A file is disassociated from a stream  by  closing  the  file.   Output
       streams  are  flushed (any unwritten buffer contents are transferred to
       the host environment) before the stream is disassociated from the file.
       The  value  of a pointer to a FILE object is indeterminate after a file
       is closed (garbage).

       A file may be subsequently reopened, by the  same  or  another  program
       execution, and its contents reclaimed or modified (if it can be reposi-
       tioned at the start).  If the main function  returns  to  its  original
       caller,  or  the  exit(3) function is called, all open files are closed
       (hence all output streams  are  flushed)  before  program  termination.
       Other  methods  of  program termination, such as abort(3) do not bother
       about closing files properly.

       This  implementation  makes  a  distinction  between  text  and  binary
       streams.  For text streams, all carrige returns are mapped to linefeeds
       during input, and all linefeeds are mapped to carrige returns  on  out-
       put.  No extra padding appears on any stream.

       At program startup, three streams are predefined and need not be opened
              standard input (for reading conventional input),
              standard output (for writing conventional output), and
              standard error (for writing diagnostic output).
       These streams are abbreviated stdin, stdout,  and  stderr.   Initially,
       the  standard error stream is unbuffered; the standard input and output
       streams are fully buffered if and only if the streams do not  refer  to
       an interactive or terminal device, as determined by the isatty(3) func-
       tion.  In fact, all  freshly-opened  streams  that  refer  to  terminal
       devices  default  to line buffering, and pending output to such streams
       is written automatically whenever an such  an  input  stream  is  read.
       Note  that  this applies only to true reads; if the read request can be
       satisfied by existing buffered data, no automatic flush will occur.  In
       these cases, or when a large amount of computation is done after print-
       ing part of a line on an output terminal, it is necessary to  fflush(3)
       the  standard  output before going off and computing so that the output
       will appear.  Alternatively, these defaults may  be  modified  via  the
       setvbuf(3) function.

       The  stdio library is a part of the library libc and routines are auto-
       matically loaded as needed by the linker.  The SYNOPSIS sections of the
       following  manual  pages  indicate  which include files are to be used,
       what the compiler declaration for the function  looks  like  and  which
       external variables are of interest.

       The  following  are  defined  as macros; these names may not be re-used
       without first removing their current definitions with  #undef:  BUFSIZ,
       EOF,  FILENAME_MAX,  FOPEN_MAX,  L_cuserid,  L_ctermid, L_tmpnam, NULL,
       SEEK_END, SEEK_SET, SEE_CUR, TMP_MAX, clearerr, feof,  ferror,  fileno,
       freopen,  fwopen,  getc, getchar, putc, putchar, stderr, stdin, stdout.
       Function versions  of  the  macro  functions  feof,  ferror,  clearerr,
       fileno,  getc, getchar, putc, and putchar exist and will be used if the
       macros definitions are explicitly removed.


       open(2), close(2), read(2), write(2)


       The standard buffered functions do not interact well with certain other
       library  and  system functions, especially fork(2), fork2(2), vfork(2),
       and abort(3).


       The stdio library conforms to ANSI/C.


       Function  Description
       --------  -----------
       clearerr  check and reset stream status
       fclose    close a stream
       fdopen    stream open functions
       feof      check and reset stream status
       ferror    check and reset stream status
       fflush    flush a stream
       fgetc     get next character or word from input stream
       fgetln    get a line from a stream
       fgetpos   reposition a stream
       fgets     get a line from a stream
       fileno    check and reset stream status
       fopen     stream open functions
       fprintf   formatted output conversion
       fpurge    flush a stream
       fputc     output a character or word to a stream
       fputs     output a line to a stream
       fread     binary stream input/output
       freopen   stream open functions
       fropen    open a stream
       fscanf    input format conversion
       fseek     reposition a stream
       fsetpos   reposition a stream
       ftell     reposition a stream
       funopen   open a stream
       fwopen    open a stream
       fwrite    binary stream input/output
       getc      get next character or word from input stream
       getchar   get next character or word from input stream
       gets      get a line from a stream
       getw      get next character or word from input stream
       mkstemp   create unique temporary file
       mktemp    create unique temporary file
       perror    system error messages
       printf    formatted output conversion
       putc      output a character or word to a stream
       putchar   output a character or word to a stream
       puts      output a line to a stream
       putw      output a character or word to a stream
       remove    remove directory entry
       rewind    reposition a stream
       scanf     input format conversion
       setbuf    stream buffering operations
       setbuffer stream buffering operations
       setlinebuf     stream buffering operations
       setvbuf   stream buffering operations
       snprintf  formatted output conversion
       sprintf   formatted output conversion
       sscanf    input format conversion
       strerror  system error messages
       sys_errlist    system error messages
       sys_nerr  system error messages
       tempnam   temporary file routines
       tmpfile   temporary file routines
       tmpnam    temporary file routines
       ungetc    un-get character from input stream
       vfprintf  formatted output conversion
       vfscanf   input format conversion
       vprintf   formatted output conversion
       vscanf    input format conversion
       vsnprintf formatted output conversion
       vsprintf  formatted output conversion
       vsscanf   input format conversion

GNO                            15 September 1997                      STDIO(3)

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