INIT(8)                      System Administration                     INIT(8)


       init - start and kill processes


       init  is the component of the UNIX operating system that is responsible
       for creating processes once the system has  finished  booting  and  for
       maintaining those processes, including killing them.

       At  any  time, the system is in one of 12 states or run levels. At each
       run level, a different group of processes is allowed  to  run.   Gener-
       ally,  when  the  run  level changes, init kills the processes which it
       created under the old run level, and creates a new set for the new  run

       Run   levels   are   identified  with  single  characters  in  the  set
       [bs0123456789].  B and S are also accepted as equivalents to b  and  s.
       Some  of  these  run  levels have special meaning and are listed below.
       Except for b, all run levels can have their meaning  changed  via  runl
       commands in /etc/inittab.

       Except  for  levels  0,  5 and 6, the actual state of the machine after
       init switches to a level is completely defined by the  processes  which
       run,  which are configurable in /etc/inittab.  It is therefore possible
       to use all but those three run levels for  purposes  other  than  their
       intended  one.  Their  meaning  as  described here are the conventional
       meaning. It is encouraged that the conventions be followed.

       b (boot)
              This is the run level that is selected by default. Any  initial-
              ization  processes  should be run under this level.  By default,
              init switches to run level s (single user) after  starting  pro-
              cesses  at  this level. The bootlevel command in /etc/rchost may
              be used to modify this behavior.

       0      This is the system shutdown level. Switching to this level  will
              cause  the  system to shut down after any level 0 processes have
              been run.

       1      This run level is defined as the administration state.

       2, 3, 4
              These are multi user run levels.  Level 2 is standard.  Level  3
              is multi user with networking, and level 4 is an alternate multi
              user set up.

       5      Under UNIX, this is the firmware monitor run level.  Under  GNO,
              switching to this level causes GNO to quit. The disparity arises
              from the fact that there is no such thing as quitting UNIX.

       6      Switching to this level causes the system to reboot.

       s      This is the single user run level.

       7, 8   These are local run levels. Any local terminals are  active,  as
              well  as  any  local area networks (level 8), but no dialups are
              active and no modem based networking is available.

       9      This level is undefined.


       The following signals can be sent to init to force certain  conditions.
       Note  that  these are intended as low level commands; init(1) should be
       used to issue these signals.

       SIGHUP Causes init to reread /etc/inittab,  kill  processes  that  have
              been removed from it, and start processes that were newly added.

              init depends on the process names (see  inittab(5))  to  compare
              the old copy of the table with the new one.

              Causes  init  to switch to the kill default run level. This is 0
              unless it is changed in /etc/inittab.  Normally, the effect is a
              system shutdown.

              Causes  init  to  try to receive a message (see procrecv(2)) and
              act on it. The message is typically sent by init(1) and contains
              status inquiries or run level change requests.

              Causes  init  to  exit its sigpause(2) and check for any pending
              events (which is useful if a timing bug has caused init to go to
              sleep while it had pending events).


       Under real UNIX, there are fewer run levels.

       When  switching  to  some  run levels, init automatically issues a runl
       command to carry out the apropriate action for that  run  level.   This
       action  can be overridden with another runl command, possibly n to can-
       cel any special action at all.

       If init becomes idle and has no children, it switch  to  the  idle  run
       level, which is 5 by default.

       If  a  LOG_EMERG message is received by syslogd(8), init will switch to
       the panic run level, 6 by default.

       When a child of init dies, any entry it has  in  the  utmp(5)  database
       will  be  removed  before  any other action is taken. Also, stray bogus
       entries are removed whenever they are noticed.

       At startup time, init tries to read the file /etc/rchost and  set  cer-
       tain system globals according to the information in that file.




       init(1), inittab(5), rchost(5), utmp(5), getty(8), syslogd(8)


       Phillip Vandry, <>

GNO                             27 October 1993                        INIT(8)

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